The main problems of formation of national competitiveness caused by a low innovative development of the Russian Federation in the world rating in the current microeconomic trends have been analyzed in this article. Indexes of branch efficiency, dynamics of hi-tech exports, realization of opportunities of production and human potential allowing to evaluating the level of implementation of industrial and human development within a particular industry under the influence of macro-environment factors are being tracked. Here are defined ways of increasing economic efficiency of national economy and obtaining competitive advantages in market conditions. © 2015, Canadian Center of Science and Education. All rights reserved.