In the recent two decades, the energy policy of Turkmenistan has changed a lot. Possessing enormous natural gas and oil deposits which development started in the Soviet times, Turkmenistan had no access to the world markets. The consistent efforts of Turkmenistan brought positive results–this country became one of the key suppliers of natural gas from the Caspian region. But, at the same time, the oil deposits in Turkmenistan are developed poorly. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.