The main goal of this work is to research theoretical and methodological stipulations of social and economic, political, trading, and geopolitical interrelations of Russia and African countries that over the recent decades have considerably lagged behind from actual position of affairs. First of all, it is related to "the Soviet heritage" in the relationships of Russia and African countries, as well as the lack of true statistics on the key areas of cooperation. Basic conclusions that can be made according to the results of stating the article materials are the following: The role and place of Africa in the global economy and global social and political relations are changing. Herewith, Russia and separate countries of Africa are involved in active rehabilitation of the bilateral and multilateral cooperation, At the present time social and economic interrelations of Russia and African countries have a greater geopolitical meaning that pragmatically economic, The revealed complications in social and economic interrelations of Russia and African countries (first of all, with Egypt, Nigeria, the RSA, and Algeria) create opportunities for further mutually advantageous cooperation, and point at prospective areas of the cooperation development, In relation to the above opportunities, it is possible to single out the following: establishing relations with African countries on the essentially new basis taking into account Soviet experience of cooperation; further development of mutually advantageous relations of Russia and African countries both within the African geopolitical space and within the Arabic and Muslim geo-economical space. © Serials Publications.