SPECIFICS OF TRANSLATING METAPHORS FROM ENGLISH INTO RUSSIAN IN MEDICAL DISCOURSE
The intensive development of medical science that is currently occurring leads to the formation of a large number of new terms. Their formation occurs mainly through such common language methods as syntactic, morphological and semantic. Metaphorical transfer as a special case of the semantic method of word formation is considered one of the most effective ways to form terminological units, which makes the analysis of the features of metaphors functioning in medical texts especially vitalor. In medical terminology, metaphor is most often considered as a phrase consisting of a word belonging to medical discourse and a lexeme from a literary language. And one word is the main one, and the second one is in a subordinating position and serves to characterize the main element. By medical discourse, we mean a special language subsystem oriented for medical communication: to diagnose a disease, to clarify a diagnosis, to have a positive emotional impact on a patient, to adopt and substantiate the chosen treatment method in terms of different points of view in the medical community and to develop a collegial consensus. The article describes metaphor theories and definitions, their classification proposed by various foreign and domestic linguists. To analyze features of metaphor translation from English into Russian in medical discourse, we used such methods as continuous sampling method, semantic analysis, structural analysis. The material for metaphor translation was various terms, phrases, dialogues and texts selected from medical encyclopedias, dictionaries, reference books, scientific medical texts and films with medical subjects. The analysis of their translation was carried out by taking into account two main approaches to translation: cognitive and linguistic. The cognitive approach involves the implementation of two types of scenarios: saving or changing the metaphorical projection during translation. At the linguistic level, the translation is performed either as close as possible to the original, if the norms of the target language allow it, or translational transformations are used. To determine the effectiveness of knowledge skills of metaphor translation in medical discourse, the experiment was conducted in two groups of the special course "Translation Fundamental", in which foreign fifth-year students of the Russian Language Department of the Medical University of RUDN study. The students were from different countries: Jamaica, Namibia, Sri Lanka, Costa Rica, Nigeria and others. The first experimental group (15 people), before performing the exercises on translating medical metaphors was studying its features. Another control group (15 people) was given exercises and texts on the translation of medical metaphors without studying this topic. A final test was passed, the main task of which was to determine the final level of foreign students' knowledge of the basics of metaphor translation in medical texts. The grades of both groups led to the conclusion that in the process of teaching an experimental group the skills of students according to all criteria and the level of their grades was 25-30% higher than that of students in the control group. The practical value of the study lies in the fact that the results of the analysis can be used as an auxiliary material in the translation of medical texts containing metaphors. Moreover, the results of this study can be used in theoretical special courses on lexicology and stylistics of the Russian and English languages, as well as the study of educational materials for medical students, the organization of advanced training and the exchange of teaching experience.