Cancer incidence rates are growing at an alarming pace pressing for the development of innovative personalized approaches to treating this disease. The absence of clinical symptoms in the early stages delays the onset of adequate treatment. Traditional therapies are not always as effective as they should be and do not guarantee long-lasting relapse-free survival. Metastatic cancers pose a particular challenge to healthcare professionals. This review touches upon the immunologic mechanisms underlying the development of malignancies, talks about conventional and innovative therapeutic modalities, such as targeted, gene or specific immunotherapies, and analyzes the literature on the use of different approaches that form a basis for precision oncology.