The study objective is to perform comparative analysis of short-term results of retroperitoneoscopic and laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for large kidney tumors. Materials and methods. The study is based on the results of examination and treatment of 108 patients with stage T1–3а renal cell carcinoma. Results. For retroperitoneoscopic radical nephrectomy, significant decrease in operative time, ligation and transection of the renal hilum, lower carbon dioxide expenditure, less intense pain sensations on day 1 after the surgery, lower analgesics expenditure, and hospitalization time. Conclusion. The results show the advantages of retroperitoneoscopic radical nephrectomy compared to laparoscopic nephrectomy. © 2019 ABC-press Publishing House. All rights reserved.