Mucociliary transport as a link between chronic rhinosinusitis and trace element dysbalance

Chronis rhinosinusitis is considered as a widespread public health issue with a prevalence of 10%. The disease significantly reduces quality of life and increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases as well as certain forms of cancer. Alteration of mucociliary clearance frequently observed in the patients and plays a significant role in disease pathogenesis. Certain studies have demonstrated that patients with chronic rhinosinusitis are characterized by significant reduction of essential trace elements and toxic metal overload. However, the particular mechanisms of the role of trace element dysbalance in chronic rhinosinusitis are unclear. We hypothesize that exposure to toxic trace elements (arsenic, nickel, cadmium) damages ciliary mucosal epithelium thus affecting mucociliary transport. In turn, altered mucociliary transport results in reduced removal of the inhaled metal-containing particles from nasal mucosa leading to their absorption and further aggravation of toxicity. Essential trace elements (zinc, selenium) play a significant role in regulation of mucociliary transport and immunity, thus their deficiency (either dietary or due to antagonism with toxic metals) may be associated with impaired functions and increased toxic metal toxicity. Therefore, a vicious circle involving metal accumulation and toxicity, essential element deficiency, impairment of mucociliary transport and metal particle removal, resulting in further accumulation of metals and aggravation of toxic effects is formed. The present hypothesis is supported by the findings on the impact of trace elements especially zinc and arsenic on mucociliary clearance, the role of mucociliary transport in heavy metal particles elimination from the airways, trace element dysbalance in chronic rhinosinusitis, as well as toxic and essential metal antagonism. The data from hypothesis testing and its verification may be used for development of therapeutic approach for management of chronic rhinosinusitis. Particularly, the use of essential elements (zinc, selenium) may reduce toxic metal toxicity thus destroying the vicious circle of heavy metal exposure, toxicity, alteration of mucociliary clearance, and aggravation of chronic rhinosinusitis. Essential element supplementation may be considered as a tool for management of chronic refractory rhinosinusitis. In addition, analysis of essential and toxic trace element status may provide an additional diagnostic approach to risk assessment of chronic rhinosinusitis in highly polluted environments. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

Alekseenko S.I.1, 2 , Skalny A.V. 3, 4, 5 , Ajsuvakova O.P. 3, 4, 5 , Skalnaya M.G. 4, 5 , Notova S.V.6, 7 , Tinkov A.A. 3, 4, 5
Churchill Livingstone
  • 1 K. A. Raukhfuss Children's Municipal Multidisciplinary Clinical Center of High Medical Technologies, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
  • 2 Mechnikov North-West State Medical University, St Petersburg, Russian Federation
  • 3 Yaroslavl State University, Yaroslavl, Russian Federation
  • 4 Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russian Federation
  • 5 I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation
  • 6 Federal Research Centre of Biological Systems and Agro-technologies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Orenburg, Russian Federation
  • 7 Orenburg State University, Orenburg, Russian Federation
Ключевые слова
Arsenic; Cilia; Ciliary dysfunction; Mucociliary clearance; Zinc
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