The paper analyses linguo-cultural characteristics of business negotiations such as discourse lexis, emotional colouring level, metaphor phrases, professional jargon and other linguistic and speech means from the perspective of computational linguistics. Different specific features of the language of business and professional communication are represented in terms of automatic text analysis methods. The possible ways of extraction of these features from texts are considered. The formal model of the language based on cognitive structures has been developed. The model is oriented for business negotiations and scientific texts. It can be used as a helpful means for communicants who speak imperfect English for determination of the extent to which their texts relate to business and professional communication. The model can also be used in distance learning systems for detection of errors in text writing. The authors draw the conclusion about prospects for practical application of the proposed model and discuss directions for further research. © 2016 IEEE.