Macrophages of mammals are a heterogeneous population of cells. This applies both to the functional parameters of macrophages and to the sources of their development. The comparative characteristics of macrophages of embryonic origin on the example of Kupffer cells and macrophages of bone marrow origin on the example of macrophages of monocyte derivatives were carried out. Cultures of Kupffer cells and macrophages of monocytic origin were obtained. The phenotype, profile of gene expression of native macrophages activated in direction M1 and M2 was studied. The phenotype of isolated cultures is characterized by methods of immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry. Gene expression was studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Under the influence of inducing factors, the phenotype of two populations of macrophages changes in a similar way: under the influence of M1-factors, the synthesis of CD86 and iNOs is activated in cells, under the influence of M2 - CD163 and Arg1. In Kupffer cells, expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines - il4, il13, is more pronounced, and in macrophages of monocytic origin of pro-inflammatory cytokines - il1b, tnfa, il12a. The induction of the genes of proinflammatory cytokines in Kupffer cells is slower compared to macrophages of monocytic origin. © 2018 Human Stem Cell Institute. All rights reserved.