Methods of Pharmacological Treatment of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension Current Approaches to the Patients Management
In this paper we have discussed epidemiology, pathogenesis, and approaches to treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). CTEPH is a unique potentially curable form of pulmonary hypertension. The gold standard of CTEPH treatment is pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. However, about 40% of patients with CTEPH are inoperable due to distal surgically inaccessible lesions of the pulmonary vasculature, severe hemodynamic impairments, or other contraindications. In addition, nearly half of patients have persistent or recurrent pulmonary hypertension following surgery. Current guidelines support the use of pharmacotherapy in these patients. In the article we have presented results of main clinical studies of targeted drugs therapy (endothelin receptor antagonists, prostanoids, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators) of patients with CTEPH. The only drug that has demonstrated robust clinical efficacy in terms of improvment hemodynamic parameters, exercise capacity and patients' quality of life is the stimulator of the soluble guanylate cyclase riociguat. The efficacy and safety of riociguat have been investigated in short-term and long-term studies with follow-up up to 6 years. Results of these studies have constituted the basis forits approval by the regulatory authorities of more than 50 countries for the treatment of inoperable CTEPH and persistent or recurrent CTEPH after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. In the European Union, USA and many other countries, riociguat is the only pharmacological agent approved for these indications.