Sex-Specific Differences in Redox Homeostasis in Brain Norm and Disease

Sex differences in brain physiology and by inference various pathologies are generally recognized, however frequently ignored in epidemiological and experimental studies, leading to numerous data gaps. As a consequence, the mechanisms underlying sexual dimorphism of neurological diseases remain largely unknown. Several cellular and molecular pathways linked to the etiology and pathogenesis of various brain disorders have been recently described as sex-specific. Here, we review the evidence for sex differences in brain redox homeostasis, which is an important factor in brain physiology and disease. First, we focus on sex-specific differences in the healthy brain regarding popular redox balance markers, including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, oxidative damage, and antioxidant status. We also review the modulatory effect of steroid sex hormones on these markers. Lastly, we approach the sex-specific changes in brain redox homeostasis in disease and discuss the possibility that differential redox response contributes to the sexual dimorphism of neurological disorders. © 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

Ruszkiewicz J.A.1 , Miranda-Vizuete A.2 , Tinkov A.A. 3, 4 , Skalnaya M.G. 4, 5 , Skalny A.V. 3, 4, 5 , Tsatsakis A.6 , Aschner M.1
Springer New York LLC
  • 1 Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Forchheimer 209, Bronx, NY 10461, United States
  • 2 Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain
  • 3 Yaroslavl State University, Yaroslavl, Russian Federation
  • 4 Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russian Federation
  • 5 All-Russian Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (VILAR), Moscow, Russian Federation
  • 6 Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece
Ключевые слова
Antioxidant; Brain; Neurodegeneration; Neurotoxicity; Oxidative stress; Sex
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