Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) is a convenient tool for rapid field-based control of various bacterial targets. However, for many applications, the detection limits obtained by LFIA are not sufficient. In this paper, we propose enlarging gold nanoparticles’ (GNPs) size to develop a sensitive lateral flow immunoassay to detect Ralstonia solanacearum. This bacterium is a quarantine organism that causes potato brown rot. We fabricated lateral flow test strips using gold nanoparticles (17.4 ± 1.0 nm) as a label and their conjugates with antibodies specific to R. solanacearum. We proposed a signal enhancement in the test strips’ test zone due to the tetrachloroauric (III) anion reduction on the GNP surface, and the increase in size of the gold nanoparticles on the test strips was approximately up to 100 nm, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Overall, the gold enhancement approach decreased the detection limit of R. solanacearum by 33 times, to as low as 3 × 104 cells·mL–1 in the potato tuber extract. The achieved detection limit allows the diagnosis of latent infection in potato tubers. The developed approach based on gold enhancement does not complicate analyses and requires only 3 min. The developed assay together with the sample preparation and gold enlargement requires 15 min. Thus, the developed approach is promising for the development of lateral flow test strips and their subsequent introduction into diagnostic practice. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.