Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative multifactorial disease characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta. Potential risk factors include exposure to environmental toxic substances, aging processes and genetic mutations. 5-15% of all the cases are genetically determined PD. In this regard, the role of environmental factors in the development of the PD neurodegenerative process becomes particularly important. However, in most cases, the interaction of environmental and genetic factors (gene-environment interaction), apparently, appears to be the cause of PD development. At the cellular level, the pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease are associated with a violation of alpha-synuclein conformation and the formation of Lewy bodies, the development of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial and protease dysfunction. This review examines the molecular mechanisms of toxic effects of various environmental pollutants that can lead neurodegenerative process and PD development: pesticides, metals, solvents, polychlorinated biphenyls and nanoparticles. The study of complex pathophysiological interactions between potential neurotoxins determining the risk of dopaminergic neurons damage and preventive neuroprotectors is one of the most perspective areas in development of PD treatment. © 2019, Northern State Medical University. All rights reserved.