A new approach to the development of a vaccine against meningococci of serogroups A and B was proposed. It involves the synthesis of conjugates of high-molecular capsule polysaccharides of the serogroup A meningococcus (PsA) with earlier synthesized protective fragments of membrane proteins from serogroup B meningococci. The conjugates were synthesized using a method that consists of the generation of aldehyde groups by oxidizing free vicinal hydroxyl groups of PsA and subsequent reaction of these groups with amino groups of the peptide. The reaction proceeds with the intermediate formation of the Schiff base, which is reduced to the stable secondary amine. The main parameters of the reaction were optimized in the synthesis of a PsA conjugate with a model peptide and methods of their characterization were developed. The reproducibility and efficiency of the synthetic procedure were demonstrated by the example of synthesis of PsA conjugates with fragments of protein PorA from the outer membrane of the serogroup B meningococcus. It was shown that, when administered without adjuvant, a conjugate of PsA with a protective peptide, which represents an exposed conserved fragment 306-332 of protein PorA, stimulates the formation of antibodies to the peptide and polysaccharide moieties of the molecule and is also capable of decreasing the degree of bacteremia in animals infected with serogroup A and serogroup B meningococci. The approach can be applied to the development of a complex vaccine for serogroup A and serogroup B meningococci. © 2008 MAIK Nauka.