Introduction: Oral health is an integral part of the overall health of children. Dental caries is a common disease in children, which can have significant consequences. The concept of minimally invasive dentistry, increasingly applied to the caries treatment, includes a modified surgical approach and smaller tooth preparations based, as far as possible, on individual caries risk assessment. Dentistry in the former Soviet Union has been united with oral medicine under the designation "stomatology". Some broadly used textbooks of stomatology were written by maxillofacial surgeons, while caries and other purely dental topics were presented without much discussion of modern knowledge. Objective: This paper presents a literature review about the dental caries prevention and treatment in children. Conclusion: There are grounds for optimism today: improved economy makes it possible to acquire modern equipment and materials, while broadening international co-operation is already attracting foreign expertise into our country.