Current course of pneumocystic pneumonia in HIV-infected patients
Aim: To describe clinical and laboratory characteristics of pneumocystic pneumonia (PP) in patients with HIV-infection for improvement of diagnosis quality. Material and methods: Detailed examination was performed in 111 HIV-infected patients with suggested diagnosis of PP. The following investigations were made: clinical, x-ray examinations, total count and biochemical blood tests, enzyme immunoassay, indirect immunofluorescence reaction (II-FR) for Pneumocystis jiroveci antigens in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or induced sputum. For diagnosis of other secondary diseases PCR was used for investigation of BALF and bronchial biopsy to detect DNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Candida albicans, Cytomegalovirus, Toxoplasma gondii, Mycoplasma spa., Herpes simplex I, II. DNA of cytomegalovirus in blood was detected with PCR. Microscopic tests of the sputum were conducted for detection of acid-resistant mycobacteria. Results: PP was associated with other secondary diseases in 59% patients (pulmonary tuberculosis - 16%, CMV pneumonia - 31%, combination of all the lesions - 5%). PP diagnosis was cancelled and pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed in 12 patients. In combination of PP with other pathology dominant were symptoms observed in PP monoinfection and only effective anti-pneumocystic treatment revealed signs of comorbid pathology. Tuberculosis patients had weaker signs of respiratory failure, symmetric bilateral interstitial or small-focal alterations were detected less frequently. Conclusion: Current PP course characteristics in HIV infection are identified. In clinical diagnosis of PP special attention should be paid to data complex especially to increasing respiratory failure, high ESR, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, low blood p O2, fast response to ex juvantibus therapy. The most effective method of the diagnosis verification - BALF IIFR.