L-Amino acid oxidases: Properties and molecular mechanisms of action
During previous decade L-amino acid oxidases (LAAO) attracted the steady interest of researchers due to their poly functional effects on different biological systems. The review summarizes information concerning the sources, structure, phisico-chemical and eatalytical properties of LAAO which exhibit antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral effects as well as the ambiguous action on platelet aggregation. Special attention is devoted to the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of LAAO action. It is proposed that the unique properties of LAAO are based on their catalytic reaction, which causes the decrease of L-amino acid levels, including the essential amino acids and formation of hydrogen peroxide. The action of liberated H2O 2 on cells involves the synthesis of oxygen reactive species and the development of necrotic and apoptotic pathways of cell death. The presence of carbohydrate moieties in LAAO molecules promotes their attachment to cell's surface and creation of high H2O2 local concentrations. The wide range of LAAO biological effects is undoubtedly connected with their important functional roles in the organism. In particular, it was shown that in the mice brain the LAAO-catalyzed reaction is the single pathway of L-lysine degradation, while in the mice milk LAAO carry out the antibacterial effect and in human leucocytes LAAO take part in fulfilling their defending role. Protector action may be also attributed to the oxidases from the other numerous sources: microscopic fungi, snake venoms and sea inhabitants.