The effects of proline on the functioning of antioxidant enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APO) - in Thellungiella salsuginea plants and cultured cells under normal conditions of culturing and under the influence of hydrogen peroxide (500 μM) were studied. Proline addition (0.2, 2, or 5 mM) to the medium for suspension culture or nutrient medium for plant growing resulted in the increase in the content of intracellular proline in both cultured cells and intact plant leaves and also in the activation of proline dehydrogenase, i. e., the enzyme degrading proline. Under normal conditions, treatment with proline exerted prooxidant action on both cellular and organismal levels. This was manifested in MDA accumulation and changes in APO and SOD activities. The amino acid alanine, used as a control, did not exert similar strong effect as proline. Application of 500 μM H2O2 on plant leaves resulted in the development of oxidative stress, whereas hydrogen peroxide addition into the culture medium - to the death of 50% of suspension cells. When plants and cultured cells were treated with 2 mM proline and than with H2O2, the number of dead cells in suspension was 35%, the content of MDA was decreased, APO was activated, and SOD activity was decreased in both cell culture and plant leaves. Thus, an increase in the intracellular proline concentration changed the redox balance and induced functioning of APO and SOD at both normal conditions of plant growing and cell culturing and under stress. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.