Selection of media for mass regeneration of sugarcane plants from callus culture
The morphogenetic abilities of callus tissues derived from four sugarcane genotypes (cvs. Co 421, PR 980, and POJ 2878 and the clone Saccharum giganteum of the species S. robustum Grassl.) were studied. The best conditions for mass plant regeneration from cultured tissues were selected. Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3 mg/1 2,4-D and 5 mg/1 diethyldithiocarbamate was shown to be best for the formation of morphogenic calli by all genotypes. MS medium with 1 mg/1 of NAA was best suited to shoot formation, whereas Schenk-Hildebrandt medium with 5 mg/1 NAA best favored their rooting. Under these conditions, 70 to 90% of the calli derived from commercial sugarcane cultivars developed shoots with a frequency of 2.6-3.2 shoots per callus. The clone S. giganteum showed a poorer morphogenetic capacity: only 10% of calli regenerated plants, with a frequency of 0.4 plant per callus.