The article provides brief information about the Chinese language and Chinese language communities (from antiquity to the present day), shows the history of the formation of the Chinese language. The peculiarities of the spread and formation of the modern Chinese language Putonghua are noted. The analysis of archaic written signs and texts shows that not only the written signs and hieroglyphs themselves, but also the entire sentence structure of the archaic sentence has much in common with the sentence structure of the modern Chinese language. Through the prism of writing changes, the historical relationship between the past and the present of Chinese civilization is shown. © 2021, Rossiiskaya Akademiya Nauk, Institut Istorii (Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of General Hist). All rights reserved.