Effects of dietary thyme essential oil and prebiotic administration on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) welfare and performance

The aim of this study was to examine the combined effects of thyme essential oil (TEO) and prebiotic (Immunogen ®) on growth performance, hematological parameters, innate immunity, and oxidative status of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. For this purpose, the fish (11.92 ± 0.06 g) were fed (3% of biomass) experimental diets that contained 0 (Control; without Immunogen and/or TEO); 1% TEO + 0.1% Immunogen (T1); 1% TEO + 0.2% Immunogen (T2); 2% TEO + 0.1% Immunogen (T3) and 2% TEO + 0.2% Immunogen (T4) for 60 days. According to results, all experimental treatments exhibited similar final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and survival rate (SR), which were significantly higher than those of the control treatment. Although all treatments reduced the feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control group, the lowest value was observed in T4. All experimental treatments showed a significant increase in amylase and protease activity compared to the control group. Moreover, the fish fed on T4 and T1 diets showed the highest and lowest lipase activity. Dietary TEO and Immunogen supplementations significantly increased WBC count and Hb level compared to the control group. Fish fed on control and T2 diets displayed lower hematocrit than fish fed on other experimental diets. The highest and lowest MCH index were recorded in T3 and control groups, respectively. The fish fed diets supplemented with T3 diet presented significantly higher MCV index compared to the control and T2 treatment. All experimental treatments exhibited similar AST, and ALP activities, which were significantly lower than those of the control group. Also, the lowest ALT activity was observed in T2 and T4 treatments compared to other groups. Dietary TEO and Immunogen supplementations significantly enhanced skin mucus total Ig, total protein level, and ACH50, protease, and lysozyme. All experimental treatments exhibited enhanced intestine total Ig, ACH50, and lysozyme level. Dietary thyme essential oil and Immunogen supplementations significantly enhanced liver antioxidant parameters including catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and decreased MDA production compared to fish fed on control diet. As a result, it can be suggested that the combination of thyme essential oil and Immunogen (specially 2% TEO + 0.2% Immunogen) is useful for enhancing the yield and well-being of farmed rainbow trout. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd

Yousefi M. 1 , Ghafarifarsani H.2 , Hoseini S.M.3 , Hoseinifar S.H.4 , Abtahi B. 5 , Vatnikov Y.A. 1 , Kulikov E.V. 1 , Van Doan H.
Academic Press
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Medicine, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), 6 Miklukho-Maklaya StMoscow 117198, Russian Federation
  • 2 Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
  • 3 Inland Waters Aquatics Resources Research Center, Iranian Fisheries Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Gorgan, Iran
  • 4 Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
  • 5 Faculty of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
  • 6 Department of Animal and Aquatic Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
  • 7 Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, 239 Huay Keaw Rd., Suthep, Muang, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand
Antioxidant; Health; Immunity; Nutrition; Rainbow trout
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