Closed-Form UAV LoS Blockage Probability in Mixed Groundand Rooftop-Mounted Urban mmWave NR Deployments

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are envisioned to become one of the new types of fifth/sixth generation (5G/6G) network users. To support advanced services for UAVs such as video monitoring, one of the prospective options is to utilize recently standardized New Radio (NR) technology operating in the millimeter-wave (mmWave) frequency band. However, blockage of propagation paths between NR base stations (BS) and UAV by buildings may lead to frequent outage situations. In our study, we use the tools of integral geometry to characterize connectivity properties of UAVs in terrestrial urban deployments of mmWave NR systems using UAV line-of-sight (LoS) blockage probability as the main metric of interest. As opposed to other studies, the use of the proposed approach allows us to get closed-form approximation for LoS blockage probability as a function of city and network deployment parameters. As one of the options to improve connectivity we also consider rooftop-mounted mmWave BSs. Our results illustrate that the proposed model provides an upper bound on UAV LoS blockage probability, and this bound becomes more accurate as the density of mmWave BS in the area increases. The closed-form structure allows for identifying of the street width, building block and BS heights, and UAV altitude as the parameters providing the most impact on the considered metric. We show that rooftop-mounted mmWave BSs allow for the drastic improvement of LoS blockage probability, i.e., depending on the system parameters the use of one rooftop-mounted mmWave BS is equivalent to 6–12 ground-mounted mmWave BSs. Out of all considered deployment parameters the street width is the one most heavily affecting the UAV LoS blockage probability. Specifically, the deployment with street width of 20 m is characterized by 50% lower UAV LoS blockage probability as compared to the one with 10 m street width. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Number of issue
  • 1 Department of Applied Probability and Informatics, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, 117198, Russian Federation
  • 2 Unit of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University, Tampere, 33100, Finland
  • 3 Laboratory of the Internet of Things and Cyber-Physical Systems, HSE University, Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation
  • 4 Institute of Informatics Problems, Federal Research Center Computer Science and Control of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119333, Russian Federation
Closed-from approximation; LoS blockage; Millimeter wave; New radio; Rooftop deployments; Unmanned aerial vehicles
Date of creation
Date of change
Short link

Other records