Recent studies have shown that the gut microbiota plays an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal diseases in various animal species. There are only limited data on the microbiome in cats with varying grades of dysbiosis. The purpose of the study was a detailed analysis of the quantitative and qualitative fecal microbiota spectrum in cats with intestinal dysbiosis of varying severity. The data obtained indicate that, depending on the dysbiosis severity in cats, the intestinal microbiome landscape changes significantly. It has been established that, depending on the dysbiosis severity, there is a shift in the balance between the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pools and in the nature of the isolation of specific bacteria forms, in the amount of obligate microbiota isolation, as well as individual facultative strains. When analyzing the serotyping of E. coli cultures isolated at various grades of intestinal dysbiosis severity, differences were found both in the isolation amount of various serotypes from one animal and in the prevalence of certain serotypes for each disease severity. A retrospective analysis of the fecal microbiota sensitivity in cats with dysbiosis to antibacterial drugs showed that, depending on the disease severity, the number of isolates sensitive to antibiotics increases significantly. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.