ON WOMEN'S POLITICAL BYNAMES (BASED ON SPANISH, FRENCH, RUSSIAN AND UKRAINIAN MEDIA AND ONLINE SOURCES)
The article deals with the issues of gender perception and the formation of the female image in politics, analyzes the nicknames of women politicians in various linguo-cultural communities. Nicknames are considered as a universal phenomenon that meets the social conditions and needs, identifies language means of a pejorative connotation in female politicians, offers a classification of political nicknames based on the key elements as the starting point for creating nicknames, examines the deliberate intention of offending in the media and online sources. Linguistic caricature - as political nicknames might be called - is a very pronounced linguistic phenomenon which exists in all the analyzed linguistic communities and has similar features. In an era of significant growth of conflict situations around the world and, in particular, in these linguo-cultural environments this issue seems quite important for translation practice to ensure the most accurate and politically correct translation of female political nicknames. The material of the study is based on articles and statements from various media of Spain, France, Chile, Russia and Ukraine, as well as social networks, blogs and forums. It must be stated that for centuries women have catastrophically been unlucky in implementation of any rights. Even in ancient Greece, the birthplace of democracy, a married Greek woman had to leave the house only when accompanied by a maid or a husband. In Middle Ages women were generally considered to be the vessel of the devil, "Devil's seed". Women managed to turn this tide only in the second half of the 19th century and being largely involved in many professions, including politics and public service. The use of nicknames is a universal phenomenon, relying on social conditions and needs, contributing to its creation. Spanish linguist H. Ramirez Martinez calls this "socializing demand" (necesidad socializadora).