State Policy of Russia in the Field of Science and Education (The end of 17th-early 18th Centuries)
The process of education and science intensive development in Russia at the end of the 17th - the beginning of the 18th centuries is completely related with the personality of Emperor Peter I (Great), who understood the grandiose importance of public education for Russia. The reforms of Peter I in the field of science and education became the most important foundation in the history of pedagogy and military affairs development in Russia, as well as in the history of the Russian state national security strengthening. The result of Peter I reforms in education was the creation of domestic regular Armed Forces of Russia and the provision of the Russian state with the experts of different profiles: military people, engineers, technicians and diplomats. The authors of the article carried out a comprehensive analysis of the materials available in Russia about the Peter schools in order to systematize and preserve these data for pedagogical science and history. The work studied the documents (decrees and letters) of Peter the Great reflecting the reforms in the field of science and education of Russia at the end of the 17th - early 18th centuries. With the support of historical documents, the establishment chronology of the first schools in Russia, the conditions for schoolchildren teaching, the structure and the content of training programs were described, and the teaching aids used in Peter schools were listed.