To assess the efficiency of endovascular treatment in patients with asymptomatic Aim vertebral artery atherosclerotic lesions as an approach for secondary prevention of strokes. Group 1 patients (n = 44) underwent stenting of the vertebral arteries combined with the medical therapy to prevent strokes, whereas group 2 patients (n = 56) received the medical therapy alone. Group 1 was then subdivided into two subgroups – subgroups 1a and 1b. Subgroup 1a patients underwent (n = 22) stenting using the embolic protection devices,while Subgroup 1b patients (n = 22) – embolic protection Methods devices were not used. The follow-up was up to 36 months with regular visits at 12, 24, and 36 months. The inclusion criteria were as follows: asymptomatic vertebral artery stenosis of 50–95%; the diameter of the vertebral arteries of less than 3.0 and not more than 5 mm; the presence of cerebral and focal symptoms corresponding to asymptomatic chronic brain ischemia (according to E.V. Schmidt). The overall incidence of spasm and dissection during endovascular intervention was 20% and 4.5% in Subgroup 1a and 1b, respectively (p = 0.0367). 2 (4.5%) patients had transient ischemic attack in Subgroup 1a. There were no perioperative strokes in Subgroup 1b. The overall rate of major cerebral complications over 36 months was 4.5% in Group 1 versus 37.5% in Group 2 (χ2 = 15.101; p <0.0001). Results The rate of adverse cardiac events was 9.1% and 19.6%, in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (χ2 = 14.784; p <0.0001). In-stent restenosis occurred in 38.67% of patients in Group I, who underwent stenting using various generations of stents. In-stent restenosis did not affect the incidence of major cerebral complications in the long-term period (χ2 = 0.1643; p = 0.735). Endovascular treatment combined with medical therapy allowed preventing cerebral complications associated with the instability of atherosclerotic plaques Conclusion in patients with asymptomatic vertebral artery stenosis. It has proved to be an effective method for the secondary prevention of strokes. © 2021 Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases. All rights reserved.