The relevance of the research is determined by changes in the forms and content of education in the field of training medical workers, including in the context of the accreditation procedures for medical universities and colleges, as well as the accreditation of graduates themselves. The article focuses on the issues of improving the quality of teaching in a medical school of courses responsible for the educational and professional results of students. The aim of the study is to comprehend the structure and content, didactic means of organizing the training of future doctors and nurses. The theoretical basis for the study of this problem is the activity approach, which makes it possible to compare and study the processual and substantive aspects of the pedagogical activity of a teacher of a medical university or college in the context of the educational results of its graduates. The article reflects the problems of training and education of medical workers, describes different types of teacher activities. These types of activities are integrated into the whole process of teaching the discipline, focused on improving the educational and professional results of students. It is especially necessary the development on the basis of the system-activity approach and the widespread introduction of new methodological approaches and the educational, methodological and other manuals that provide them, ensuring the harmony of the processes of interiorization and externalization of the knowledge, skills, value orientations necessary for a person as a professional, partner and personality.