The multiscale simulation of apical myocardial infarction and shape variation of the left ventricle of the heart
A multiscale model of the cardiovascular system (CVS) in which the left ventricle (LV) of the heart was approximated by an axisymmetrical thick-wall body made of transversely isotropic incompressible material was used to simulate the performance of the heart with apical myocardial infarction (MI). The material model reproduced mechanical properties and calcium regulation of active tension in cardiac muscle. The changes in the LV strain and the reduction of the LV stroke volume and arterial blood pressure obtained in the MI simulations were similar to those observed in patients with the apical MI. In contrast to the decrease in heart performance in the MI simulations, the simulation of changes in the LV shape from "normal" to a spherical or conical one revealed only slight changes in haemodynamics provided that the LV preload and the mass of the LV wall were kept constant.