The purpose of the article is the analysis of the state of energy security in the states of the Black Sea region in terms of the geopolitics and geostrategies of different regional and international political forces. Energy security is interpreted as the provision of steady energy supply from different types and sources (diversification) and energy market stability. Energy security analysts have always emphasized the importance of energy and energy policies, but too often focused solely on the utilization of resources as an element of political power. The problem of energy and its security is often viewed as vague, misunderstood or unsolvable, with countries hostage to threats with hazardous consequences. A quality selection of analytical and statistical resources has been made to identify energy security problems, such as the growing dependence of most advanced industrial countries on oil and gas supplies, and increasing demand from developing economies for fuel. The objectives of the study are based on the notion of the regional division between the states of the Black Sea basin. The results of the study are founded on the analysis of the operations of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization and the geostrategic and geopolitics interests of the major players in the Black Sea region in the context of their energy security. The article is concluded with the suggestion of a potential solution to the problem of uneven geographic distribution of energy resources such as oil and gas on the political map of the world. The political instruments for influencing energy security in the EU, NATO, USA, Russia and Turkey are analyzed in the article. Recommendations for reducing potential conflicts in the Black Sea region and minimizing the impact on the energy security of the states involved by providing a steady energy supply are given. © 2020 Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM. All rights reserved.