Changes in rat liver after resection and injection of autologous multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells of bone marrow origin (MSCs) transfected with the GFP gene and cell membranes stained with red-fluorescent lipophilic membrane dye were studied by light microscopy. It was found that after the introduction of MSCs into the damaged liver, their differentiation into any cells was not found. However, under the conditions of MSCs use, the number of neutrophils in the parenchyma normalizes earlier, and necrosis and hemorrhages disappear more quickly. It was concluded that the use of MSCs at liver resection for the rapid restoration of an organ is inappropriate, since the injected cells in vivo do not differentiate either into hepatocytes, into epithelial cells of bile capillaries, into endotheliocytes and pericytes of the vascular membranes, into fibroblasts of the scar or other connective tissue structures, or into any other cells present in the liver. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.