The article is dedicated to the consideration of Islamic civilization in the context of the dialogue of contemporary world's cultures caused by globalization processes. Islamic civilization is presented as the interaction of different cultures, historically formed on universal underlying values and moral norms. The author deduces stereotypes of consideration of Islam and threats "coming from it" existing in modern-day humanities and social sciences. The researcher refers to them theoretical attempts to describe the realities of the Muslim world in terms of the Christian tradition, as well as related to the particular ideological attitude and methodology of so-called Eurocentrism. Conclusions are made about the role and significance of Islamic civilization for the preservation of sustainable development of countries within the global world.