TEACHING SPANISH AND ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND PRAGMATICS IN DISCOURSE TO HIGHER EDUCATION STUDENTS
This paper discusses one of the main problems faced by foreign students studying English as a first and Spanish as a second foreign language, that is to say, the use of different discourse markers in spoken language. A discursive marker is an immutable linguistic expression that does not perform a syntactic function, but is a limiting element whose main function is to promote understanding and consistency of speech. These markers endowed with a certain pragmatic role, differ according to the predominant role they play in this context, indicating the difficulties they face in their interpretation and translation into another linguistic code. In addition, it is noted that such particles appear in different contexts, performing functions that do not correspond to those that they performed by default. Therefore, it is desirable that Spanishspeaking students become familiar with these units, so that they can give speech consistency and cohesion in accordance with the morphosyntactic, semantic, and pragmatic properties that arise during communication. This work emphasizes the importance of speech acts arising in speech depending on the context. To achieve the goals, few the most commonly used discursive formulas in greetings are presented as an example, which are used as a replica in the confirmation to contrast their use and behavior in English and Spanish languages, as they can vary depending on the context, and therefore increases the degree of difficulty it presents for translation into Spanish. In addition, it is emphasized that routine formulas are a key example that provides a great cultural footprint, contributing to the development of communicative competence. We also discuss how modern linguistics assumes that languages cannot be described simply as a combination of phenomena, since they should be considered as internal systems used by speakers and how language speakers can use imagination to form new statements from a combination of existing elements, so language is a complex mechanism that allows you to combine elements to form statements. And finally, we argue that the “Grammar of Constructions” should turn to research in pragmatics, analysis of discourse and analysis of conversations in order to include categories that accurately describe contexts for using constructs.