The literature review presents modern information on obliterating bronchiolitis (OB) in childhood. It consistently provides information on deficiencies, morphology, coding of the disease according to ICD10, history of study, etiology, epidemiology, classification and pathogenesis of OB. Biomarkers, clinical, radiological picture and functional diagnosis of OB are separately characterized. Based on a generalization of literature and authors' own data, the diagnostic criteria for post-infectious OB as the most common version of OB in children are provided. The approaches to therapy and disease prognosis are described. © 2020, Pediatria Ltd.. All rights reserved.