New molecular cytogenetic biomarkers may significantly contribute to biodosimetry, whose application is still globally diverse and not fully standardized. In 2011, a new term, chromothripsis, was introduced raising great interest among researchers and soon motivating further investigations of the phenomenon. Chromothripsis is described as a single event in which one or more chromosomes go through severe DNA damage very much resembling rogue cells (RC) described more than 50 years ago. In this review, we for the first time compare these two multi-aberrant cells types, RC versus chromothriptic cells, giving insight into the similarities of the mechanisms involved in their etiology. In order to make a better comparison, data on RC in 3366 subjects from studies on cancer patients, Chernobyl liquidators, child victims of the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident, residentially and occupationally exposed population have been summarized for the first time. Results of experimental and epidemiological analysis show that chromothriptic cells and RC may be caused by exposure to high LET ionizing radiation. Experience and knowledge collected on RC may be used in future for further investigations of chromothripsis, introducing a new class of cells which include both chromothriptic and RC, and better insight into the frequency of chromothriptic cell per subject, which is currently absent. Both cell types are relevant in investigations of cancer etiology, biomonitoring of accidentally exposed population to ionizing radiation and biomonitoring of astronauts due to their exposure to high LET ionizing radiation during interplanetary voyages. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.