Effects of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinale) administration on growth performance and stress, immunological, and antioxidant responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) reared under high stocking density

In the present study, the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on stress, antioxidant, humoral immune and cytokine responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) under high stocking density were investigated. The fish were assigned into four experimental groups: LD (the fish reared at 10 g L−1 and fed with the control diet), HD (the fish reared at 20 g L−1 and fed with the control diet), HD-5 (the fish reared at 20 g L−1 and fed with the control diet supplemented with 5 g kg−1 ginger), and HD-10 (the fish reared at 20 g L−1 and fed with the control diet supplemented with 10 g kg−1 ginger). After 60 days of rearing, the fish at the HD treatment exhibited significantly lower growth performance compared to the LD treatment, but the fish fed the diet supplemented with 10 g kg−1 (HD-10) showed growth performance comparable to the LD treatment. Under high stocking density, the fish had significantly higher cortisol and glucose levels, but ginger mitigated the stress responses. Plasma superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase exhibited higher activities in HD, HD-5, and HD-10 treatments compared to the LD treatment. However, plasma catalase activity increased only in HD treatment. The increase in stocking density significantly increased plasma malondialdehyde levels, and ginger treatments significantly mitigated such increases. The fish at the HD treatment had significantly lower plasma lysozyme, complement and bactericidal (against Aeromonas hydrophila) activities and total immunoglobulin levels compared to those at the LD treatment; however, the dietary ginger administration inhibited these effects especially with fish fed 10 g ginger per kg diet. The fish at the HD treatment had significantly lower expression of tumor necrosis alpha (tnfa), interleukin 1 beta (il1b), and interleukin 8 (il8), and higher interleukin 10 (il10) genes. Ginger treatment, particularly at 10 g kg−1 level significantly mitigated the effects of high stocking density on the cytokines. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that ginger treatment at 10 g kg−1 level is beneficial to suppress stress, oxidative stress, and immunosuppression caused by high stocking density in common carp. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.

Authors
Fazelan Z.1 , Vatnikov Y.A. 2 , Kulikov E.V. 2 , Plushikov V.G. 3 , Yousefi M. 2
Journal
Publisher
Elsevier B.V.
Language
English
Status
Published
Number
734833
Volume
518
Year
2020
Organizations
  • 1 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Azadshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Azadshahr, Iran
  • 2 Department of Veterinary Medicine, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), 6 Miklukho-Maklaya St, Moscow, 117198, Russian Federation
  • 3 Agrarian and Technological Institute, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), 6 Miklukho-Maklaya St, Moscow, 117198, Russian Federation
Keywords
Blood; Gene; Health; Nutrition; Phytotherapy
Date of creation
10.02.2020
Date of change
10.02.2020
Short link
https://repository.rudn.ru/en/records/article/record/56506/
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