The uveoscleral outflow as an alternate route of aqueous drainage is of great interest in glaucoma surgical treatment. A cyclodialysis cleft allows one to create a direct connection between the anterior chamber (AC) and the suprachoroidal space (SCS) which is the key element of uveoscleral outflow. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of reverse meridional cyclodialysis ab interno (RMCai) in decreasing intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and refractory glaucoma (RG). Fourteen patients who exhibited POAG and RG (11 men and 3 women, age 77.3 ± 7.8 years) were included in the study. All patients underwent RMCai with the help of custom-designed spatula. The spatula, inserted through a clear corneal incision, was used to detach the ciliary body from the scleral spur to create a 2.0-2.5 mm wide and 6.0-6.5 mm deep cleft. Outcome measures were IOP change, use of hypotensive medication(s), complications, and need for a second surgery. Decrease in IOP by more than 20% and IOP between 6 and 21 mmHg without hypotensive medication constituted complete success. Similar changes in IOP with medication constituted partial success. Need for second surgery constituted failure. The follow-up period was >3 months. Baseline IOP and hypotensive medication use were 22.0 ± 8.5 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI), 17.6-26.4) and 2.6 ± 0.9 (95% CI, 2.2-3.1). At 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, complete success was achieved in 64.3%, 77.8%, 55.6%, 37.5%, and 40% of patients respectively; partial success - in 14.3%, 22.2%, 44.4%, 50.0%, and 60.0%. Four patients required a second surgery. Failure occurred because of cleft closure by fibrosis. It was concluded that RMCai is safe and effective in decreasing IOP in POAG and RG patients. © 2019 Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University. All rights reserved.