Tajikistan is a very isolated country with the most difficult access and limited transport connections with other countries in the region and beyond. Under such restricted conditions, international relations that allow to develop the economy and promote social progress play a crucial role for Tajikistan. Considering the country’s geographic location, Tajikistan’s interaction with neighboring countries plays a major role in the sphere of international relations. The paper analyzes the foreign trade relations between Tajikistan and neighboring countries—Afghanistan, China, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. The relevance of examining Tajikistan’s border trade with neighboring countries reflects the importance held by the analysis of this aspect’s influence on the country’s socio-economic development. Border trade, defined as the flow of goods and services over international land borders in the up to 30-kilometer range, plays an important role in supporting the livelihood of the population of the border area, and is thus a pillar of the republic’s welfare. Moreover, by strengthening the trade connections and promoting mutual understanding between different communities, border trade stimulates the maintenance of friendly relations between neighbors. © 2019, CA and C Press AB. All rights reserved.