Today, the unstable political and economic situation in the world has led to an intensified migration and changes in their directions. The legal norms regarding the status of migrants, including people living with HIV, are also changing. Over the past 10 years laws restricting the entry and residence of HIV-infected foreign citizens have been repealed in many countries, but in Russia the deportation and prohibition of long-term stay of HIV positive international migrants are still in effect. This review presents the main aspects of the impact of migration on the spread of HIV in the world and Russia, as well as the possible positive and negative effects of decriminalization of migrants living with HIV in terms of epidemic situation, socio-demographic and economic processes. The argument for retaining the deportation is due to the potential risk of the spread of the disease by foreigners and the unresolved organization of medical care and treatment of HIV infection for foreign migrants, which are provided for Russian citizens from the state budget. On the other hand, the deportation law touches upon ethical aspects, violating freedom of movement, the right to privacy and freedom from discrimination. Despite the presence or absence of restrictive measures against HIV-positive migrants, HIV has spread throughout all countries and led to a global epidemic. Prevention of HIV infection among general population of the country, regardless of their migration status, is a priority on the way to stop the spread of infection. © 2019 Izdatel'stvo Meditsina. All rights reserved.