This work describes ultrasound-assisted phenol-yne addition of p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and propargylic ester of betaine hydrochloride giving only 2-((3-(4-formylphenoxy)allyl)oxy)-N,N,N-trimethyl-2-oxoethan-1-aminium chloride as a product at 100 kHz 300 W in water. The ultrasonic assisted phenol-yne addition was enhanced to chitosan chemistry. Phenolic chitosan derivatives were obtained by treatment of chitosan with o-, m- or p-hydroxybenzaldehyde followed by reduction of the formed C[dbnd]N bound by NaBH4. The phenolic chitosan derivatives (phenolic component) were involved in ultrasound-mediated reaction with propargylic ester of betaine hydrochloride (yne component). The reaction led to betaine chitosan derivatives in different degree of substitution as o-, m- and p-isomers. The phenolic and betaine derivatives were tested as antibacterial agents against E. coli in comparison with reference antibiotic Tetracycline. Betaine derivatives showed high antibacterial activity. The most effective polymer was p-isomer of high substituted betaine derivative and its activity was more than 2 times higher than the activity of Tetracycline. The nanoparticles based on this polymer were obtained by ionic gelation method. They had 2Rh 126 nm, ξ-potential 20 mV and were more effective than the corresponding chitosan derivative. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.