Cellular redox homeostasis involves a combination of redox processes and corresponding regulatory systems and represents an important factor ensuring cell viability. Redox-dependent regulation of cellular processes is a multi-level system including not only proteins and enzyme complexes, but also non-coding RNAs, among which an important role belongs to microRNAs. The review focuses on the involvement of miRNAs in the redox-dependent regulation of both ROS (reactive oxygen species)-generating enzymes and antioxidant enzymes with special emphasis on the effects of miRNAs on redox-dependent processes in tumor cells. The impact of ROS on the miRNA expression and the role of the ROS/miRNA feedback regulation in the cell redox state are discussed. © 2019, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.