К вопросу о роли мифа в философии. Индийский аспектрассмотрения (на материале вишишта-адвайты)
On the role of Myth in Philosophy. Indian aspect of the research
The study of the philosophical doctrine of viśiṣṭādvaita uncov- ers some logical difficulties of this system. Particularly, the concept of God and his relationships with the world and souls can not be rationally explained and systemized in a non-contradictory way (as we can see for example in advaita-43vedānta system). The basic word-combination, which is used by Rāmānuja to name such a relationship between God and world is «śarīra-śarīri-bhāva- sambandha». This metaphorical description presents three different ontological entities (God-world-soul) as the inseparable unity (apṛthaksiddhi). The other crucial technical term, closely connected with the first one and used by Rāmānuja is antaryāmin, vis. the Inner Ruler, who lives in the heart of every creature and is the third hypostasis of Brahman. In bhedābhedavāda and advaita this same term (antaryāmin) however was interpreted as denoting the Highest Brahman (paramātmā). The metaphysical core of this philosophical doctrine is closely connected with the religious images and patterns, developed in Vaiṣṇava reli- gious tradition. The theological doctrines of pañcarātra and the poetical hymns of alvars can help us to put an order on the history and structure of the ontologi- cal doctrine of viśiṣṭādvaita.The paper deals with the reception of the cosmological model of the famous hymn Puruṣa-sūkta (Rigveda, X, 190) by the philosophical system of viśiṣṭādvaita. Our assertion is that a creation myth provides a philosophical system with a ma- trix of its theological, ontological and cosmological doctrines. The above men- tioned explanation of the God-world-soul relationship in viśiṣṭādvaita is rooted in Puruṣa-sūkta, but it is accepted not through the smṛti-texts, but through the ritualistic tradition of pañcarātra. The other issue which it is planned to clear up is the historical relationship of viśiṣṭādvaita and pañcarātra.