Wild plants differing in the strategies of adaptation to salinity were grown for six weeks in the phytotron and then subjected to salt stress (100 mM NaCl, 24 h). The activities of principal antioxidant enzymes and the accumulation of sodium ions and proline were studied. Independently of the level of constitutive salt tolerance, plants of all species tested accumulated sodium ions under salinity conditions but differed in their capability of stress-dependent proline accumulation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and guaiacol-dependent peroxidase activities. Proline-accumulating species were found among both halophytes (Artemisia lerchiana and Thellungiella halophila) and glycophytes (Plantago major and Mycelis muralis). The high activities of ionically-bound and covalently bound peroxidases were characteristic of Th. halophila plants. High constitutive and stress-induced SOD activities were, as a rule, characteristic of glycophytes with the low constitutive proline level: Geum urbanum and Thalictrum aquilegifolium. Thus, a negative correlation was found between proline content and SOD activity in wild species tested; it was especially bright in the halophyte Th. halophila and glycophyte G. urbanum. An extremely high constitutive and stress-induced levels of proline and peroxidase activity in Th. halophila maybe compensate SOD low activity in this plant, and this contributed substantially into its salt resistance. Thus, monitoring of stress-dependent activities of some antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation in wild plant species allowed a supposition of reciprocal interrelations between SOD activity and proline accumulation. It was also established that the high SOD activity is not obligatory trait of species salt tolerance. Moreover, plants with the high activity of peroxidase and active proline accumulation could acclimate to salts stress (100 mM NaCl, 24 h) independently of SOD activity. © 2008 MAIK Nauka.