Role of the genetic factors, detoxication systems and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and infertility (Review)
The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the role of the genetic factors, detoxication systems and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and infertility. Endometriosis and infertility are still both the most uncommon diseases in gynecology. Many aspects of female reproductive function are strongly influenced by genetic factors, and numerous studies have attempted to identify susceptibility genes for disorders affecting female fertility such as polycystic ovary syndrome, endometriosis, fibroids, cancer (ovarian, vulvar, cervical), premature ovarian failure, recurrent pregnancy loss and pre-eclampsia. The most solid evidence linking specific polymorphisms to endometriosis is showed by the studies investigating a phase II detoxification enzyme. No data were found concerning influences of the genetic factors on the female infertility. Contrary, a lot of studies devoted to the genetic factors of male infertility are presented. It's known that endometriosis associated with increased systemic oxidative stress. The implication of increased systemic oxidative stress in disease progression or the association with other oxidative stress-related pathologic conditions needs to be addressed in further studies. The majority of studies suggest a reduced antioxidant capacity in infertile women with endometriosis. In the present review we discussed the role of the genetic factors in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and infertility. NAT2 polimorphism, xenobiotic methabolism and exogenous factors are somehow related with these diseases. An altered balance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant activities may have an impact on folliculogenesis and adequate embryo development.