Evaluation of Wheat Resistance to Snow Mold Caused by Microdochium nivale (Fr) Samuels and I.C. Hallett under Abiotic Stress Influence in the Central Non-Black Earth Region of Russia

Microdochium nivale is one of the most harmful fungal diseases, causing colossal yield losses and deteriorating grain quality. Wheat genotypes from the world collection of the N.I. Vavilov Institute (VIR) were evaluated for fifty years to investigate their resistance to biotic stress factors (M. nivale). Between 350 to 1085 of winter wheat genotypes were investigated annually. Ten out of fifty years were identified as rot epiphytotics (1978, 1986, 1989, 1990, 1993, 1998, 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2021). The wheat collection was investigated by following the VIR methodological requirements and CMEA unified classification of Triticum aestivum L. The field investigations were carried out in the early spring during fixed-route observations and data collection was included on the spread and development degree of the disease, followed by microbiological and microscopic pathogen identifications. The observations revealed that the primary reason for pink snow mold to infect the wheat crops was abiotic stress factors, such as thawed soil covered in snow that increased the soil temperature by 1.0–4.6◦ C above normal. Under these conditions, the plants kept growing, quickly exhausting their carbohydrate and protein resources, thus weakening their immune systems, which made them an easy target for different infections, mainly cryophilic fungi, predominantly Microdochium nivale in the Moscow region. In some years, the joint effect of abiotic and biotic stresses caused crop failure, warranting the replanting of the spring wheat. The investigated wheat genotypes exhibited variable resistance to pink snow mold. The genotypes Mironovskaya 808 (k-43920) from Ukraine;l Nemchinovskaya 846 (k-56861), from Russia; Novobanatka (k-51761) from Yugoslavia; Liwilla (k-57580) from Poland; Zdar (UH 7050) from the Czech Republic; Maris Plowman (k-57944) from the United Kingdom; Pokal (k-56827) from Austria; Hvede Sarah (k-56289) from Denmark; Moldova 83 (k-59750) from Romania; Compal (k-57585) from Germany; Linna (k-45889) from Finland and Kehra (k-34228) from Estonia determined the sources, stability and tolerance to be used in advanced breeding programs. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Temirbekova S.K.1 , Kulikov I.M.2 , Ashirbekov M.Z.3 , Afanasyeva Y.V.2 , Beloshapkina O.O.4 , Tyryshkin L.G.5 , Zuev E.V.5 , Kirakosyan R.N.4 , Glinushkin A.P.1 , Potapova E.S.4 , Rebouh N.Y. 6
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  • 1 All-Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology, Bolshye Vyazyomy, Odintsovo District, Moscow, 143050, Russian Federation
  • 2 Federal Horticultural Center for Breeding, Agrotechnology and Nursery, Moscow, 115598, Russian Federation
  • 3 Department of Agronomy and Forestry, Faculty of Agronomy, Manash Kozybayev North Kazakhstan University, Petropavlovsk, 150000, Russian Federation
  • 4 Department of Biotechnology, Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, Agrarian University, Moscow, 127550, Russian Federation
  • 5 N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR), Bolshaya Morskaya Str. 42–44, Saint Petersburg, 190000, Russian Federation
  • 6 Department of Environmental Management, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), 6 Miklukho-Maklaya Street, Moscow, 117198, Russian Federation
Biotic stresses; Fungal pathogens; Pink snow mold; VIR gene pool; Wheat breeding
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