Today, diabetes is one of the leading medical and social problems. This is due to a pandemic increase in the development of the disease. Eye complications that occur against the background of diabetes are complex. Diabetic damage to the visual organ is the main cause of visual acuity in these patients. One of the serious complications of proliferative diabetic retinopathy is secondary neovascular glaucoma, which is often refractory to treatment and eventually leads to irreversible blindness. Currently, neovascular glaucoma is an important and urgent problem in modern society, as it leads a large number of patients to disability and impaired social adaptation. The paper presents a review of the literature on the current state of the problem of neovascular glaucoma and presents the results of major international studies. Based on the data of domestic and foreign literature, the authors provide up-to-date information on the incidence, evaluate the clinical manifestations of the disease, paying attention to new methods of diagnosis and treatment. These data allow us to evaluate the effectiveness of modern therapeutic and surgical approaches in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma, as well as its various complications and measures for their prevention. © 2021 Russian Association of Endocrinologists. All rights reserved.