The article discusses the main problems of pharmacotherapy for cough. With a high prevalence of this symptom, a significant number of patients are refractory to specific cough therapy. In addition, the problem of poor tolerance of most antitussives remains, especially in the pediatric population. The problems of the efficacy and safety of a number of the main antitussive drugs most commonly used in clinical practice are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the drug levodropropizine, which is a non-opioid antitussive agent of the peripheral type of action. The results of clinical studies and meta-analyzes are presented, suggesting a higher efficacy and safety of levodropropizine compared with centrally acting antitussives. © 2020, Pediatria Ltd.. All rights reserved.