The article provides general information about the skin physiology of newborns and infants. Structural features of the skin and main adaptive shifts in newborns, are described. Тhe child has an increase in the skin barrier function of the skin, which prevents transepidermal water loss; active synthesis of natural moisturizing factor (NMF) components that control skin hydration; shift of pH to acidic environment; normalization of thermoregulatory functions; enhancement of the photoprotective function; immune restructuring for antimicrobial protection; formation of a normal microbiome. The article describes the consequences of improper skin care of a newborn, using the example of diaper dermatitis, irritant dermatitis, prickly heat and vesiculopustulosis. The importance of using specialized children's cosmetics in caring for an infant is assessed. The basic recommendations for the choice of these products are presented, where the main emphasis is on the choice of products consisting of natural ingredients. Giving preference to natural cosmetics, everyone should carefully study the composition of these products and trust the manufacturers who can guarantee safety of care products for the youngest children. © 2020, Pediatria Ltd. All rights reserved.