The need to find ways to improve the effectiveness of antibacterial therapy is due to the dramatic escalation of resistance to antibacterial drugs (ABD), with the growth rate of resistance of ABD microorganisms ahead of the new drugs development. According to available data, the pathway of ABD administration may correlate with the phenomenon of resistance development to ABD. Actual data on existing inhalation ABDs, allowing to estimate their efficiency and safety, are considered in the article. In the treatment of patients with infectious respiratory diseases, an alternative to the systemic use of ABD may be inhalation administration of a number of ABDs, whose activity depends on concentration. © 2020 Medical Education. All rights reserved.