“Shielding” of Cytokine Induction by the Periodontal Microbiome in Patients with Periodontitis Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Periodontal diseases, especially those with polymicrobial etiology, are often associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, proceeding more severely and affecting the course of diabetes mellitus. Recently, this feature has been associated with the ability of periodontopathogen microflora to cause not only a local infectious process in the oral cavity, but also to interact with the human immune system and induce various systemic effects. We investigated changes in the salivary cytokine profile of patients with chronic periodontitis, associated and not associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We observed a statistically significant decrease of MCP-1/CCL2, GM-CSF, IL-5, IL-6, and IFN-γ in the saliva of patients with chronic periodontitis associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in comparison with patients with chronic periodontitis only. All of these cytokines are associated with macrophage activation. These data are an important contribution to the elucidation of the mechanism of periodontopathogens involvement in the manifestation of the systemic effects of type 2 diabetes.