Brain–lung–thyroid syndrome (BLTS) is a rare genetic disease associated with mutations in the NKX2.1 gene encoding thyroid transcription factor 1. The most common manifestations of this syndrome are benign hereditary chorea, hypothyroidism and respiratory distress syndrome, however, mutations in the NKX2.1 gene can also cause other pathologies of nervous, respiratory systems and thyroid gland. The article describes 4 patients with mutations in the NKX2.1 gene observed by authors. Based on the analysis of the observations of 168 patients with BLTS presented in the world literature from 1998 to 2019, current information on the genetics, pathogenesis, clinical X-ray manifestations, outcomes and treatment of the syndrome are summarized. © 2019, Pediatria Ltd. All rights reserved.